Mortality due to road traffic injury (RTI) in Africa is among the highest in the world, at about 28.3 deaths per 100,000 population. Road traffic crashes are on the increase in Tanzania, especially with the rise car ownership. In 2000, the total number of reported accidents was 14,548 of which 1,441 were fatal, causing 1,737 deaths and 14,094 people were injured. In the last decade, Tanzania has seen a fivefold increase in recorded traffic related fatalities.
A study at Bugando Medical Centre identified that 52.1% of RTIs were head injuries with high mortality rates in patients with severe (62%) and moderate (33%) head injury. Furthermore, a retrospective study from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre identified that head injury was associated with increased risk of mortality, and no other injury location was clearly associated with mortality.