A 2010 prospective observational study initiated by the Hellenic Society of Trauma and Emergency Surgery evaluated the epidemiologic characteristics of patients with brain trauma, the cause and the severity of the injury and the final outcome. Thirty hospitals participated in the registry. All trauma patients requiring admission transfer to a higher level centre and those who arrived dead were included in the study. The number of patients included in the registry was 8,862. Of those, 3,383 had at least one brain injury. There were 2,451 males and 932 females. Road traffic crashes were the leading cause of TBI (54.1%), followed by falls (27.7%). The most affected age group was 15–44 year olds (48.0%), but TBIs were more lethal in the 45–64 age group (17.8%). Interestingly, 3.4% mortality was recorded if a TBI was present, even if ISS was relatively low (0–9 ISS group).